Casper Almén, Nicholas Hagström, and Jyri Rajamäk

Published in

Information & Security: An International Journal 53, no. 1, 11-20


Early warning system, ECHO project, cybersecurity, cybercrime, energy sector

Open Access



The purpose of this case study is to bring lessons learned from the ECHO project to the DYNAMO project in the energy sector. The main research question is how to understand the ECHO Early Warning System as a tool for the prevention of cybercrime as well as cyber incident coordination and response in the context of the energy sector. The applied sources of evidence are the DYNAMO project proposal, public ECHO deliverables, scientific publications available via the ECHO web pages, and other materials available via the ECHO web pages. The study shows that ECHO Early Warning System can be a very valuable tool, and it also finds examples of how to utilize EEWS in practice.
The main conclusion is that situation awareness, together with Early Warning Systems, is a powerful combination that can facilitate the fight against cybercrime.