Andrzej Dziech, Piotr Bogacki, Jan Derkacz

Published in

Sensors 2022, no. 21: 8106


watermarking, image protection, PHL transform, data embedding, multimedia systems

Open Access



The paper presents a novel data-embedding method based on the Periodic Haar Piecewise-Linear (PHL) transform. The theoretical background behind the PHL transform concept is introduced. The proposed watermarking method assumes embedding hidden information in the PHL transform domain using the luminance channel of the original image. The watermark is embedded by modifying the coefficients with relatively low values. The proposed method was verified based on the measurement of the visual quality of an image with a watermark with respect to the length of the embedded information. In addition, the bit error rate (BER) is also considered for different sizes of a watermark. Furthermore, a method for the detection of image manipulation is presented. The elaborated technique seems to be suitable for applications in digital signal and image processing where high imperceptibility and low BER are required, and information security is of high importance. In particular, this method can be applied in systems where the sensitive data is transmitted or stored and needs to be protected appropriately (e.g., in medical image processing).